|Unit Size||90 capsules|
|Dosage||Take two capsules two times daily with meals, or as recommended by your healthcare practitioner.|
|Recommendations||Guaranteed to contain no added wheat, starch, yeast, gluten, corn, soy, sodium, sugar, artificial coloring or flavoring or antimicrobial preservatives. Ideal for vegetarians. The capsules are made from 100% pure vegetable sources, free of preservatives and additives. Safety-sealed for your protection and for product freshness. Do not use if outer seal is missing or broken. Store in a cool, dry place.|
Amino acid formula from whey protein hydrolysate
• Source of essential amino acids for the maintenance of good health (1)*
Ideal for vegetarians
• Convenient capsule format increases patient compliance
Amino Complex provides essential and non-essential amino acids from whey protein hydrolysate. The capsules are 100% pure vegetable-sourced.
1 Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Sep;107(3):987-92.
A study was designed to compare the acute response of mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to rapidly (i.e., whey hydrolysate and soy) and slowly (i.e., micellar casein) digested proteins both at rest and after resistance exercise. Three groups of healthy young men (n = 6 per group) performed a bout of unilateral leg resistance exercise followed by the consumption of a drink containing an equivalent content of essential amino acids (10 g) as either whey hydrolysate, micellar casein, or soy protein isolate. Ingestion of whey protein resulted in a larger increase in blood essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acid, and leucine concentrations than either casein or soy. Mixed MPS at rest (determined in the nonexercised leg) was higher with ingestion of faster proteins (whey = 0.091 +/- 0.015, soy = 0.078 +/- 0.014, casein = 0.047 +/- 0.008%/h); MPS after consumption of whey was approximately 93% greater than casein and approximately 18% greater than soy. A similar result was observed after exercise (whey > soy > casein); MPS following whey consumption was approximately 122% greater than casein and 31% greater than soy. The study concludes that the feeding-induced simulation of MPS in young men is greater after whey hydrolysate or soy protein consumption than casein both at rest and after resistance exercise; moreover, despite both being fast proteins, whey hydrolysate stimulated MPS to a greater degree than soy after resistance exercise (2).*
There is evidence that protein hydrolysates can speed tissue repair following damage and may therefore be useful for accelerating recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. The potential for a hydrolysate (WPIHD) of whey protein isolate (WPI) to speed recovery following eccentric exercise was evaluated by assessing effects on recovery of peak isometric torque (PIT). In a double-blind randomised parallel trial, 28 sedentary males had muscle soreness (MS), serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma TNFalpha, and PIT assessed at baseline and after 100 maximal eccentric contractions (ECC) of their knee extensors. Participants then consumed 250 ml of flavoured water (FW; n=11), or FW containing 25 g WPI (n=11) or 25 g WPIHD (n=6) and the assessments were repeated 1, 2, 6 and 24h later. PIT decreased approximately 23% following ECC, remained suppressed in FW and WPI, but recovered fully in WPIHD by 6h. WPIHD may be a useful supplement for assisting athletes to recover from fatiguing eccentric exercise (3).*
Signaling pathways sense local and systemic signals and regulate muscle hypertrophy. The effects of whey protein ingestion on acute and long-term signaling responses of resistance exercise are not well known. Previously untrained young men were randomized into protein (n = 9), placebo (n = 9), and control (n = 11) groups. Vastus lateralis (VL) muscle biopsies were taken before and 1 h and 48 h after a leg press of 5 x 10 repetitions [resistance exercise (RE)] and after 21 wk (2 times per week) of resistance training (RT). Protein (15 g of whey) or nonenergetic placebo was ingested before and after a single RE bout and each RE workout throughout the RT. The protein group increased its body mass and VL muscle thickness (measured by ultrasonography) already at week 10.5 At week 21, the protein and placebo groups had similarly increased their myofiber size. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation was increased after the RE bout and RT only in the protein group, whereas the protein ingestion prevented the post-RE decrease in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (p-4E-BP1). The results indicate that resistance exercise rapidly increases mTOR signaling and may decrease myostatin protein expression in muscle and that whey protein increases and prolongs the mTOR signaling response (4).*
2 Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Sep;107(3):987-92.
3 Buckley JD, Thomson RL, Coates AM, Howe PR, DeNichilo MO, Rowney MK. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2010 Jan;13(1):178-81. Abstract (Article to be obtained)
4 Hulmi JJ, Tannerstedt J, Selänne H, Kainulainen H, Kovanen V, Mero AA. Resistance exercise with whey protein ingestion affects mTOR signaling pathway and myostatin in men. J Appl Physiol. 2009 May;106(5):1720-9.
Serving Size 2 Capsules
Serving per Container 45
Each Serving Contains % DV
Protein <1 g 1%t
Whey Protein Hydrolysate
(bovine milk)? 1000 mg *
t Percent Daily Values (DV) are
based on a 2,000 calorie diet
* Daily Value not established
? A source of 16 amino acids
Other Ingredients: Hypromellose, magnesium stearate, magnesium silicate, cellulose